The oldest and most famous it he Hermitage of San Cerbone, where Saint Cerbonius, Bishop of Populonia withdrew to as he escaped the Lombards. It was originally only a grotto, but it was later transformed into a small church and hermitage. During the Counter-Reformation in the 16th and 17th centuries, some of these places became sanctuaries dedicated to the Virgin Mary, with simple but wholly evocative buildings.
The medieval Sanctuary of the Madonna del Monte in Marciana, hidden in a cool chestnut forest, was built with large blocks of granite in the 13th and 14th centuries, before being reconstructed in the 16th century. It conserves a 15th-century Madonna painted on granite, while some of the figures in the apse are attributed to Il Sodoma. The crenellated bell tower dates to the 20th century and vaunts an eclectic style, while on the road leading to the sanctuary, there are the chapels of a Stations of the Cross. Napoleon briefly stayed in the adjacent hermitage, which once housed St. Paul of the Cross.