Castiglion Fiorentino, a well-known medieval town that lies between Arezzo and Cortona, is documented as a fortified hamlet from as early as the tenth or eleventh centuries, when it was known as Castellione Aretino. But the town possesses a wealth of history that goes back even further, as evinced by numerous archaeological finds and architectural structures, not least the massive town walls and the equally imposing citadel. First and foremost, though, it interests us as the Etruscan epicentre of the Valdichiana.
The town, built on an isolated hilltop stretching between the valleys of the Clanis and the Chio, continued to develop over the centuries as a result of its strategic position. The ancient centre that corresponds to today's Castiglion Fiorentino, situated on the territorial boundary between Arezzo and Cortona, dominated not only the direct routes towards the north but also the transversal connection routes towards the Valle del Nestore (Trestina–Fabbrecce) and the upper Valtiberina. Studies conducted in 1988 identified an Etruscan town that flourished primarily between the archaic and the Hellenistic ages.
In this article, we point you in the direction of various sites and places of interest, to help you get to the heart of the Etruscan people in the Castiglion Fiorentino area.