Initially these houses and residences were outside the town walls. During an unclear period, most likely the 12th century, step by step, this area stretched inside the walls, going as far as the Vico castle. The midway point on the street is marked by the Clocktower, about which we have spoken a great deal in our section on towers. The tower also acts as the dividing line between two areas that were likely built at different times: the first stretches from the Constantine gate to the Tower and the second from the Tower down to what is now Viale Brunelleschi.
Most of the oldest buildings are concentrated in the first area; their 12th century character can still be noticed under the plaster, in spite of frequent later alterations. These medieval buildings are similar to those located in Viale Brunelleschi; furthermore, in this area there is no trace of towers and the medieval buildings generally resemble the Roman “domus”. In the second section of the street, besides a few 12th-century buildings, there is a prevalence of brick buildings, characteristic of the 13th century. The horizontal corbels in verrucano stone are replaced by round brick arches. These bricks feature geometrical patterns, like the ones that can be observed in more important centres such as Pisa and Lucca, a sign of the remarkable vitality of Vicopisano in this period.