From the first set of walls, which date back to 15-30 B.C., till the last one in the mid-sixteenth century, up to five or six different wall designs (the count is controversial!) were built over the centuries to defend the city, following its various expansions and contractions.
Today, just a small portion of the last walls remains: the southern part, in the Oltrarno area. The walls of the north side of the Arno river were destroyed to create today’s boulevards in the nineteenth century, when, for a brief period, Florence was the capital of Italy.
Fortunately, some strong and impressive remnants of the ancient city walls still survive: the doors (porte) and a few towers.
Here is the list of the doors that can be seen in town (clockwise, starting from the north), with some information and curiosities on each, and a few tips about where to spot the “invisible” ones!