The perimeter of the theatre is included within a larger archaeological area overlaid on the structures from the Etruscan, Roman and medieval ages. At the highest point is the Etruscan Acropolis of Piano di Castello, where the remains of a temple complex were found that was probably frequented from the 7th century BC to the 3rd century AD. Today, only two structures dating back to the Hellenistic age are visible, one of which has a rectangular plan and the other included the podium and the colonnade.
Next to the acropolis, the archaeological area preserves a system of cisterns built around the first century AD that were used for storing water. The largest of these is the Roman Cistern, called the piscina (pool), which served as a deposit for rainwater and for the water supply of the city districts.
Today, the archaeological area hosts events such as the Volterra Roman Theatre International Festival.