The valley is home to forests of beech, maple, birch and yew trees, while most of the slopes to the north of the reserve are covered in chestnut trees, and on the sunnier sides, cork trees.
There are also many animal species that make the Farma a unique place in Italy. Of the mammals, there are otters and two kinds of bats, the greater and lesser horseshoe varieties, as well as other protected animals, like martens, skunks and wildcats. Not far from the Belagaio Castle is a natural lake known as Stagno della Troscia, which is the ideal habitat for alpine newts. The lake is also home to many varieties of fish, some of which are important, like the Arno goby, squalius lucumonis, rovella and Appennine barbel.