The building of the Pieve di San Martino in Palaia dates back to the second half of the 1200s when a new pievania (the territory that depended from a spiritual viewpoint on the parish priest) was created, detached from the previous one of San Gervasio. Grand in seize, it is located just outside the village walls in a northernly direction.
The Parish Church appears as a building with a rather uniform wall surface, despite the fact that it has been restored several times over the centuries. According to the studies conducted on its architectural structure, its erection seems to have been taken place several times over time, and the many stylistic differences lead to the assumption that there occurred different construction phases. Despite this, the predominant style is late Romanesque.
The interior consists of three naves of five bays with brick columns, raised presbitery and three side chapels. The interior also contains a hexagonal-shaped baptismal font, a font and a large marble basin. The latter, now missing, was presumably used for the immersion baptism rite and came from the church of Santa Maria da Ripezzano, near Palaia.