Since the late 1500s, Livorno has been home to a dense Jewish community, which established many commercial activities in various cities. It was around this time that the first synagogue was built, on today’s via Grande, though it was destroyed during a bombing in World War II. The current synagogue, finished in 1962, is a modern structure. In the cemetery on viale Nievo, there are important chapels and funerary monuments related to the community.
In Monte San Savino, there is still a synagogue, and traces of the Jewish population can be seen in the so-called “Rabbi’s Throne” and in the Christian cemetery, where there are a few tombs and headstones here and there.
The first Jewish settlement in Pisa dates to the 9th century. There are records of a synagogue located on "Chiasso dei Giudei,” near today’s piazza dei Cavalieri. Later, the community came together in Palazzo da Scorno on Lungarno Galilei. Today’s synagogue has been at the centre of the Jewish community since the 16th century. The current cemetery, beyond piazza del Duomo, is the fourth in a series of historic cemeteries.