The sound of horses and carriages and the whistle of various trains composed a dynamic soundtrack for the city, during the days that Florence was capital. Between 1865 and 1870, Florence published sixteen daily papers. In 1870, before the decision to transfer Italy’s capital to Rome, 723 newspapers were published nation-wide, 101 of which were published in the province of Florence. In addition to ‘Nazione’ and ‘Gazzetta del Popolo’, and ‘Gazzetta di Firenze’, which were born within the city, readers could enjoy papers ‘of every color’, whether clerical, republican, liberal, revolutionary, humoristic or serious—many of which ‘only saw the light of one morning’.
These newspapers were created locally and they were accompanied by the arrival of various other newspapers that were published throughout Italy. These included ‘Il Diritto’, a left-wing publication, ‘La Gazzetta Ufficiale’ which published government documents, and ‘L’Opinione’, a Cavour-inspired right-wing publication. Other important newspapers where also born in Florence like Carlo Pancrazi’s ‘Gazzetta d’Italia’ and Benedetto Cairoli’s ‘La Riforma’, in addition to the ‘Corriere Italiano’ which was probably the first editorial company of united Italy, in the sense that it published 25,000 copies. Old and new newspapers often criticised the Florentines which caused local resentment. Florence also hosted several humoristic publications like ‘Stenterello’ and ‘L’Asino’ which allowed artists like Collodi and Yorick to become famous, thanks to their unique, clever style.