Some sections of the walls date back to the 6th or 7th century, but the castle's history is very quiet in the centuries of the Middle Ages until it became the seat of the Florentine Captain of Justice for this area in 1451. As such it became a key site for importing the Humanist culture of Florence into this region.
Some of the most important names of the Middle Ages are associated with this castle including Castruccio Castracani, the Emperor's deputy in 1320; Dante Alighieri who was a guest here; Niccolò Piccinino and Francesco Sforza.
The castle's fortunes deteriorated in the 17th century. It was reduced to a mere farm house when it was bought by a private citizen in 1969 and renovated. Today, thanks to the intervention of Loris Jacopo Bononi, it has returned to its earlier role as a site of humanistic culture, providing space for the Niccolò V Centre of Humanistic Studies, a school of music, an archive and a library.