The history of Castelnuovo Berardenga is closely connected with the worship of Madonna del Patrocinio. As early as in 1367 the Virgin Mary was thanked for the fortifications that the Sienese had built to defend the village from sacking in the fighting between Florence and Siena. Some episodes of miraculous healing have been attributed to the Madonna and, more recently, the providential mistake of a military map, which is said to have brought to the area a strong contingent of English troops in 1944 who freed the village from Germans, who were all set to explode mines.
Externally, the Sanctuary of Maria Santissima del Patrocinio (built in 1680) is shaped like a cabin with travertine slabs that cover the lower part, while the upper part of the church is plastered. The sanctuary has a Latin cross plan with chapels along the arms of the transept. The vaulted roof is held up by half-pillars reaching up from the walls and outlined with rounded arches. Of particular interest is a wooden compass, the orchestra held up by marble columns, a parapet decorated in stuccowork, the travertine balustrade and altar bearing the icon of the Virgin Mary with Child in terracotta. The divine effigy in the church of the Compagnia was originally located in a “maestà”.